Happy Birthday Motion JPEG 2000! The Engine the drives AV over IP is 20 Years Old! Wait! What?

Motorola Razr Is Back in 2019 with Folding Screen, Retro Mode, and ...

While we’re all shuttered at home, hiding from COVID-19, I’m inviting all those bored AV engineers to create the next innovation in AV over IP technology!

Still syncing your Palm V with your Windows ME PC – or maybe you’ve moved up to a Microsoft Pocket PC? Using nine clicks to text “cow” on your old Motorola RAZR? Driving to Blockbuster to rent a VHS tape? Catching Sonic the Hedgehog rings on your Sega Dreamcast? No? Of course not – that was 20 years ago, long gone. (Well, OK, government and military computation are still running on 50-year old COBOL, updated by 50+ OK Boomer programmers. (Maybe, like fine wine, some things do get better with age!)

Also alive and kicking is Motion JPEG 2000, so named because it’s Y2K technology and this codec, with a couple variants, is still the core of today’s AV over IP video distribution systems. Yes, it does the job, but better solutions are available in 2020.

According to industry analysts, AV over IP isn’t taking the market by storm. Conference laptops are switching with ClickShare, and HDBaseT and Crestron DM systems are still popular. Another obstacle is cost. FPGA and ASIC processors that can handle MJPEG 2K are expensive. While AV over IP transceivers use basically the same components – metal box, HDMI I/O, codec processor, Linux OS and 1 or 10 Gbps Ethernet – prices are high. 10 G units can cost more than 1G, but the only difference is compression settings. Integration-centric transceivers add in more control and brand-ecosystem features, adding cost, cooling fans and sometimes, ridiculous POE power wattage. Customers are locked into 1G or 10G systems when the units could offer variable compression that adapts to present and future network capability.

Creating AV over IP Solutions using 2020-era Technology

Broadcasters, wanting to employ 4K streaming over existing network wiring, rejected MJPEG 2K for many of the above reasons. They wanted compression that behaved like an uncompressed stream with microsecond latency. They wanted a lighter approach to compression that can operate on less expensive processors. They selected JPEG XS, now a part of SDI and ST2110 IP standards. The new codec offers “transparent” compression” at 3:1 to 10:1 ratios with microsecond latency, and only slightly more latency at 20:1 and beyond. In addition, the streams can maintain integrity over many network hops.

If JPEG XS is perfect for broadcasters and content creators, why not adopt JPEG XS for AV?

So, engineers, why not jump-start a new era for AV over IP while you’re bored at home?

New Life for 1G Systems

Just about all 1G technology employs FPGA processors, so suppliers are just an update away from making the change – challenging 10G tech with better IG latency. That’s assuming the new codec obeys the same commands as the old – engineers know change is never without challenges.

New Life for 10G Tech

Right now, 1G is beating the pants off 10G, as 1G can run over copper wiring and employ less expensive IP switches. Powered by JPEG XS, SVDoE could do the reverse, with the ability to switch between 3:1 and 20:1 compression. Aurora Multimedia is already headed that way, offering a 1G SDVoE system with 8:1 compression and 4:2:0 4K streaming. Extron is doing the same with MJPEG2K, offering 1G and 10G transceivers – but why not sell one switchable solution instead of two?

Adapting Streaming to Network Bandwidth with Variable Compression

While most existing wiring can employ 1G technology, new Multi-Gigabit switches can deliver 2.5G bandwidth over Cat 5e and 5G over Cat 6. At some point, a site might upgrade cabling with fiber. Why lock streaming to 1G or 10G? Use a Multi-Gigabit Ethernet connection on the transceiver and let the installer or client choose the best compression for the network.

Lowering AV over IP Cost and Raising Values

While FPGA-based systems can update existing transceivers, new products can use less expensive processors (and lower POE). Not that price reflects the component cost. Aurora’s 1G streamers are value-priced, but use the same processors as the 10G gear. However, JPEG XS will change the rules of the game, increasing competition. 1G Multi-gig tech can match the values of 10G just by using a better network and less compression. My guess is that 10:1 compression over a 2.5G/5G copper Cat5e/6 network will be the sweet spot. The shift may be more difficult for SVDoE, as it would require new products with a new XS-based chipset, and there is no backward compatibility. JPEG XS may or may not lower the costs of AV over IP solutions, but it will certainly raise the value.

Will AV over IP move up to JPEG XS and Multi-Gig technology? I hope so, but I thought, a year after its introuction, I’d see a few Audinate AV products out there. But no.

Either way here’s to new opportunities, and the chance to think about different stuff than hand sanitizers and face masks!

1GB Versus 10GB – Is There Really a Debate?

An article in AV Technology Feb/March 2019, “1Gb Versus 10Gb” states that the market is migrating from central matrix switching to employing generic Ethernet switches while desiring the same values of HDBaseT – uncompressed video and zero-latency switching. The author felt the SDVoE should be compared more with HDBaseT – and that’s not wrong. Both are IP solutions, with one using an internal 10G switch, while the other uses an external switch. But the story never really delves into the 1G side of the debate.

It’s ironic that the same publication features a full-page Crestron NVX ad that states,”YES. The 1GB VS 10GB Debate is Over.” Obviously, there is some debate, especially between the two statements that are essentially ads.

Let’s face it – all 4K-capable switching systems are using compression – it’s the only way to fit the signal into the pipe. If the audience can’t see the difference between 3:1 compressed (10G) and 20:1 compressed (1G) 4K video – then there is no debate. Well, of course, there is debate – one would expect quality and latency differences between 3:1, 20:1, or 8:1 compression . The importance of those differences depends on the application.

Crestron believes there is a place for both 1G and 10G switching, and is the current leader of the pack. There are several key reasons for this:

  • On the 10G side, new Crestron DM systems (and other 18G HDBaseT systems) feature VESA DSC compression for 4K60 4:4:4 video, while lower resolutions are uncompressed – a more common-sense way to keep HDBaseT values intact.
  • On the 1G side of the switch, Crestron’s NVX compresses all streams by 20:1, which will pass all variations of 8-bit and 10-bit 4K. As with most other IP Switch systems, NVX employs Motion JPEG 2000 (MJP2).
  • On the 1G side of the switch, Crestron’s NVX compresses all streams by 20:1, which will pass all variations of 8-bit and 10-bit 4K. As with most other IP Switch systems, NVX employs Motion JPEG 2000 (MJP2).
  • 1G applications are popular as existing Category wiring is likely 5e/6 UTP, so 1G switching is the only way to go without running all new cable (10G can be run over Cat 5e/6, but over a short distance) or fiber.
  • NVX is more than video, it’s designed as part of the full Crestron ecosystem, including control, audio, XiO Cloud, and Air Media.

But That’s not the Only 1G Option

Aurora Multimedia’ also supports both 10G and 1G IP switching solutions, both based on the same SDVoE technology. The VLX system is an interesting contender for 1G Cat 5e/6 video distribution. Its design philosophy rests on the reality that commercial video systems will never employ entertainment-level 4K content. By limiting resolution to 4K60 4:2:0/4K30 4:4:4 resolution, the system can offer SDVoE signal quality, a host of key integration features, and simplified 1G networking – all at a low transceiver cost. Features include:

  • Low 8:1 compression, 1.5 frame latency
  • Compact transceiver boxes and wall panels
  • 1G POE networking (9W)
  • 2-way IR and 1-way RS-232 control (An internal channel list can be created for simple IR wireless control)
  • Host and device USB 1.1/ 2.0 ports
  • Optional Dante audio routing

Aurora Multimedia and Crestron are only two of many providers of 1G IP Switching systems. I’ve mentioned the NVX and VLX systems as they represent two different approaches to the same application.

Is the Market Transitioning?

In terms of competitor’s hopes to gain a piece of Crestron’s market share – not so much. Crestron’s reputation, relationship and integration is a high hurdle to jump over. Talking with integrators, many systems are self-contained switching applications that work perfectly well with DM HDBaseT. If the IP switch is in the same rack as the video sources – it’s the same thing, anyhow.

Not that there aren’t good options available from others. AMX SVSI and Extron NAV enjoy solid control ecosystems as well. Kramer has a 1G system driven by cloud-sourced control. WyreStorm offers a surprising array of MPEG, JPEG 2000, 18G HDBaseT, and SVDoE switching systems.